They said "the epithet carboniferous is of obvious application to this series".Henry Shaler Williams (1891) proposed Pennine System as the name for the Carboniferous.Galena can contain minor amounts of antimony, arsenic, bismuth, cadmium, copper, silver, and zinc See and stalagmites.Encountering impermeable strata (such as toadstone) it forms underground lakes in the limestone which overflow to the surface as natural springs (a resurgence).4,540,000,000 (4.54 billion) years ago Formation of planet Earth - Usher's date was ).Archeozoic: end of Azoic to 2,500,000,000 years ago: The era of the earliest living beings on earth.
"In all but detail, this fossil is indistinguishable from modern Bangia" for the Ediacaran fossils to first appear, 655,000,000 years ago. This showed life beginning with the Silurian system, which it described as "a marine deposit of vast extent containing abundance of marine organic remains. Together, these extinctions may have removed about 85 percent of species of marine animals.
Three strata of toadstone had been found, and the limestone under the third was as far as miners had reached. The map project describes the "shallow tropical sea surrounded by coral reefs" in which the limestones were laid down and how "subterranean volcanoes erupted spasmodically through the sea floor, covering the limestones with ash and lava" which formed the toadstone.